Small digression in the big Oriental rugs History
In the Old Testament (ref. 26, 8-38) it is spoken of the tent arranged from weaving of coverlets. The earliest oriental rug currently kown is related to the Vth century BC. It was found by archeologists in a Pazyryk kurgan on Altai, it is being stored in Ermitage museum now.
The first mankind's wovern pictures were found in a tomb of pharaoh Tutmos IV. They are related to the time of the New empire (XVI-XI BC). One of Ben Hassan's frescos, dated X BC, shows all the weaving process as we know it today.
Most ancient of the existing rugs was created in V BC. Archaeologists have found it in the well-known Fifth Pazyryk barrow at Excavation of Russian archaeologist S.I.Rudenko in 1949, in Mountain Altai, natural boundary Pazyryk, a valley of Big Ulagan, in Russia. Now it is kept in The State Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg). This product, probably, in Assyria that specifies rather wide circulation carpet weaving already in that far time however was weaved. Pazyryk carpet is decorated with a laconic ornament with strongly pronounced anthropomorphic and zoozoom orphicements (horsemen on horses). Clearly, that this kind of a covering served not only an ornament, but also the keeper of the valuable information. Relevantly to note good safety of a product - at correct storage rugs may live not one hundred and even one thousand years.
All Oriental rugs existing in a nature share on pile and non-pile. In turn, there are, mainly, two types of non-pile: kilims and sumakhs. These versions non-pile rugs have appeared in beginning V BC. Their beautiful east names mean only technical characteristics. "The ancestor" of non-pile carpet the mat - the very first in a history of mankind a floor covering is. The truth, in a far antiquity it reminded a carpet more - its pile was attached to a wum basis with the help of knots.
KILIM - non-pile hand-worked carpet which is not having technical, that is back, sides. WefWeft salstring color therefore the covering turns out bilateral. The ornament is formed with the help of knots, appreciable at close survey. Kilim it is possible not only to lay on a floor but also to use as a cloth, a coverlet, a drapery. Kilims, generally, are very light and also are simply cleaned. They are made manually only, that makes them unique and rather expensive.
SUMAK (SUMAC, SUMAKH) - In them the color string forming an ornament is wound around of a basis as braid which end is deduced on a wrong side. In result sumakhs, generally, have the obverse and technical sides.
HAND KNOTTED ORIENTAL RUGS - today are most popular. Soft, iridescent pile is formed from issued outside of the ends connected in knots strings. Them either cut, or leave untouched.
One more group the most ancient products made of a wool oriental rugs (TEKEMET) form only rather seldom meeting on the markets fulled rugs, perhaps. Them apply as thermoisolational floor coverings, and also to overlapping roofs yurts.
Uzbekistan is the native land so-called "SUZANI" - unique in style of the antiquarian products frequently accompanying with silk application. On the character they correspond, faster, to running cloth that is why may be only conditionally referred to carpet products; nevertheless, suzani are a component of many oriental rugs collections and are mentioned here in this connection for completeness of a picture.
The so-called GOBELIN tapestries occurbing, mainly, from Flemish both French areas and used only for covering of walls and in quality wall coverlets are known also.
Originally oriental rugs were made manually. Weaved them on a usual wooden frame. Weavers held an ornament in their memory, transferring "from hands to hands". Special curves which enclosed(laid) under ducks later have appeared. As a sample the available carpet might serve the master.
It is the easiest to count density itself. For this purpose on a seamy side of a carpet measure square " and in it count knots across and on a vertical, then received quantity(amount) to multiply. Too high parameter of density may become in some cases the reason of destruction of a product - the carpet will burst on bends (for example if it ineptly to curtail), and it will be hardly possible to rescue.
As it was already told, the basic and best material for oriental rugs from most ancient times is the natural sheep wool. In XX century, for the sake of cheapening of products, began to apply a cotton, flax and synthetics. For expensive wall rugs in olden time used silk.
Long time among chemical paints for textiles dominated anilines. Invented in 1847, they quickly have begun to be distributed and in 1853 have already reached(achieved) Iran. Aniline dyes have allowed to put manufacture of rugs on industrial rails. The truth, in first time these substances yet were not able to fix, and from water they flew. But the problem was completely solved by 20-th years of the last century. Red and orange colors are most vulnerable in sense of a moult. Today aniline paints are gradually superseded polymeric and synthetic which do not require fastening and do not fade. The advanced, third generation of dyes - chromic. On properties they are practically indistinguishable from natural, but not such juicy on color.