General information about Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is situated in Central Asia, deep in the Eurasian continent.
Its territory is as large as 2,724,900 sq km (i.e. 1,049,150 sq miles). In terms of the area it is the second largest among the CIS states. In fact the territory of Kazakhstan exceeds that occupied by twelve countries of the European Union.
Kazakhstan borders upon the following states:China- 1.460 km - long border; Kyrgyzstan - 980 km; Turkmenistan - 380 km; Uzbekistan - 2.300 km; the Russian Federation - 6.467 km. Total length of borders amounts to 12.187 km.
The territory of the Republic stretches on from the low reaches of the Volga in the West to the foothills of the Altai mountains in the East - for some 3,000 km ( a distance that spans two time zones), from West Siberian lowland in the North to the desert of Kyzylkum and the mountain range of Tien Shan in the South for some 2,000 km.
The northernmost point in Kazakhstan - 55'26'' NL - corresponds to the southern latitude of the central part of the East-European plain and to the southern part of the British Isles (the latitude of Moscow). As to the southernmost point - 40'56'' NL - it corresponds to latitudes of Transcaucasia and Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe (the latitude of Madrid, Istanbul and Baku).
Yet remoteness of the country from oceans and vastness of its territory determine climatic conditions.
The climate of the country is sharply continental. Average temperature in January varies within - 19? - 4? C while average July temperature fluctuates within + 19? - + 26? C. The lowest temperature in winter may go down to - 45? C with the highest one in summer + 30? C.
The population numbers some 14,841,900 people (01.01.2001). Population density is as high as 5,5 people per 1 sq. km.
The capital is the city of Astana (since December 10, 1997) whose population is as large as 319,000 people.
Administratively Kazakhstan is comprised of 14 regions (as of 5.05.97) with cities of Almaty and Leninsk enjoying a special status), 85 cities of which 40 refer to those of Republican and regional subordination, 160 districts, 10 municipal districts, 195 settlements, 2,150 aul (rural) counties.
In terms of the number of the population cities of Kazakhstan may be subdivided into several categories:
- those having 300-400 thou. residents (Karagandy, Shymkent, Pavlodar, Taraz, Ust-Kamenogorsk);
- those with 200-280 thou. residents (Uralsk, Temirtau, Kostanay, Aktobe, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk);
- those with 110-160 thousand residents (Zhezkazgan, Yekibastuz, Kyzylorda, Aktau, Kokshetau, Atyrau).
Most numerous are cities numbering less than 50,000 residents.
Kazakh is the official language. This notwithstanding, in State institutions and local administration bodies along with the Kazakh language they speak Russian quite officially.
Monetary unit is tenge which is equal to 100 tyins. It was introduced on November 15, 1993.
National holidays are as follows: Day of the Republic (October,25) and Independence Day (December,16).
There are 8,500 big and small rivers in Kazakhstan. The length of seven largest rivers exceeds 1000 km. The largest ones are the Ural and the Emba flowing into the Caspian Sea, the Syrdaria falling into the Aral Sea while the Irtysh, the Ishim and the Tobol run all across the Republic to eventually reach the Arctic Ocean.
There are 48,000 big and small lakes in Kazakhstan. The largest among them are the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Zaisan, Alakol, Tenghiz and Seletenghiz. Besides Kazakhstan shares the larger portion of the nothern and half of the eastern littoral of the Caspian Sea - the largest ever sea on the planet. The length of the coast line of the Caspian Sea (its Kazakhstani portion) is 2,340 km.
Steppes occupy some 26% of the territory of Kazakhstan. 167,000,000 ha account for deserts (44%) and semi-deserts (14%) with forests occupying 21,000,000 ha.
When speaking about the flora and fauna of the Republic, we have to mention 155 species of mammals, 480 and 150 species of birds and fish respectively and about 250 species of medicinal herbs. Worth noting is that such exceedingly rare plant as santonica wormwood grows nowhere else but in the South of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is rich with commercial minerals. In terms of chromium, vanadium, bismuth and fluorine reserves Kazakhstan knows no second in the world while in resources of iron, chromite, lead, zink, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphorite, copper, potassium and cadmium the country holds one of the leading places.
On the territory of the country they have discovered nearly 160 deposits of oil and gas. Their reserves - known to this day - are approximately equal to present day resources of the whole of the Western Europe. These oil and gas fields contain about 20,000,000,000 barrels of oil and 700,000,000 ton of gas condensate. Sum total of the cost thereof is estimated in the region of USD 4 bln. The Tenghiz field only ranks as one of the largest deposits of the world.
Coal reserves in Kazakhstan reach 160,000,000,000 ton. The Republic numbers 10 coal fields of bituminous and brown coal, 155 deposits all in all.
Iron ore resources (containing 50-60% of pure iron) in the Republic surpass those of many a country in the world.
Kazakhstan is the second richest country in the world (after Russia) with regard to phosphorite reserves while phosphorite deposits of Zhanatas and Karatau in terms of thickness and quality are second to none in the world.
Kazakhstan holds one of the first places in the world as to the production of aluminium.
The Republic harbours uncommonly superb resources of copper ore. Zhezkazgan ore deposits are second largest in the world as to their potential.
The territory of Kazakhstan affords infinite resources of salt and construction materials.
The already prospected deposits serve a fine basis for the development of mining, coal-mining, metallurgy, oil-and-gas and chemical industries.
Kazakhstan's share in world output of commercial minerals and products of procession thereof (according to estimates of the Union Bank of Switzerland) in the days of the late USSR amounted to the following: Beryllium - 24%, Zink - 7%, Tantalum - 33%, Titanium - 26%, Chromite - 27%, Copper - 3%, Barite - 7%, Molybdenum - 3%, Lead - 7%, Bauxites - 1%, Uranium -14%, Manganese - 5%, Silver - 6%, Iron ore - 2%, Tungsten - 12%, Gold - 1%.