For oriental rugs as materials and jute the wool, a cotton, silk, flax, hemp serve in the diversified combinations. A wool receive from sheep, camel or goat hair. It has different advantage - short, rather rough or rather thin, long and lustrous, and it depends on district in which sheep get divorced, from parts of a body from which the wool is sheared, and from its manufacture which, since hackling and finishing spinning already occurs in the mechanical way. First of all the wool goes on carpet pile, - only carpets of nomads entirely consist of a wool, - and the natural colourful scale of a wool in its various shades from white up to yellow, from brown and grey up to black is frequently used. The cotton is a cheap, strong material; before it was manufactured by nomads manually, now it is carried out at many factories and factories, absent-minded over all East. It use under a basis, and for strengthening a carpet and its protection from corrugation also under intermediate ducks. Silk - one of the most ancient noble materials - has strong shine and due to the subtlety makes possible the most dense weaving.
The sheep wool
The sheep wool definitely is one of the first materials, which person has learned to apply to itself on advantage(benefit). It specifies even the historical name of Babylon: according to one of variants of interpretation, this word should mean literally "the country of a wool".
The sheep wool, the most widespread and most important spinning material for manufacturing tufted and knotting carpets. It is used as for creation of pile, and, partly, as a material of strings of a basis and weftsal strings cloth bases of a carpet, mainly at weaving carpets by nomads and half-nomads.
Quality of a wool determines, first of all, consumer qualities and wear resistance of a product. East carpets of a low rating are essentially made of a bad quality wool, whereas valuable, high-quality carpets - only from a wool of the best quality.
Cotton Fibre In Rugs
This natural fibre is known from ancient times.
The cotton plays the second role on importance (after a wool) in the industry of wum carpets, but it is used not for reception of pile, and as a material cloth bases (strings of a basis and weftsal strings). The cotton distinguished by stability of the form and high durability on a stretching has well recommended itself as a basis for deduction carpet knots. Sometimes it is intertwined also in carpet pile (as so-called mercerized cotton). Today the cotton is part some carpet pile usually in mercerized form.
The cotton is hygroscopic, therefore is necessary to support low humidity of air, damage (rotting) cloth bases differently is possible.
If to process a cotton energized yarn in a solution caustic natrium on a method developed in first half of 19 centuries by English chemist John Merserom, to turn out so-called mercerized cotton - a material distinguished by silky luster. Chemical processing improves simultaneously ability to colouring, approximately on 25 % raises and allowable stretching effort. Mercerized cotton is used for weaving carpets in Turkey (Kaizeria), in the Indian part of Kashmir and in Pakistan. It is called to give to a product a kind of a silk rug. In trade such "silk imitations" refer to as everywhere "deceptive" ("Blender").
And on turkish markets mercerized cotton represent tourists under the following names: wood silk, vegetative silk, flosh, silk-like a material, ipekli. Such names are called to veil a true origin of a material and not simply mislead, but also are completely erroneous in essence.
Silk in Rug Weaving
Silk for a long time is considered one of the most valuable and esteemed natural products. Carpets of silk are often distingueshed for their special elegance and expressed grace, they are characterized by specific silk luster and unsurpassed shine.
The archeologic researches which have been carried out(spent) in China have allowed to confirm that silk production were engaged in the fourth millenium B.C.. China during centuries kept monopoly to silk until then while as the legend in 420 of our era so-called "silk princess" secretly says has not taken out this secret of the country in Hotan. Other legend speaks that wandering monks - transported eggs and germs of a silkworm in the hollow staffs.
Pure silk is formed at nymphosis of caterpillars of a silkworm (Bombix mori), rather ordinary-looking on a kind of a night moth. The so-called wild silk named also tussor-silk, is developed by an oak silkworm (Sericaria mori). But to manufacturing carpets of it(him) do not apply.
Almost the silk string not perceived to the naked eye, developed a caterpillar taking place in a head special iron at winding it circular movements of the cocoon, may reach in length up to 4000 m.
As the first class silk it is possible to use only approximately from third up to half of cocoon. The rest, first of all, it is usual more friable external environment of a doll which name also silk tow, acts on the market as a silk - drill and a yarn from silk waste products.
Amaze elasticity and breaking strength of so gentle and at the same time extremely strong silk fibre: it is counted up, that under influence of a body weight it is torn at length only in 50 kilometers.